montrealex (montrealex) wrote,
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Сухой январь. Редкие фотографии введения "сухого закона" в США 101 год назад.

«Сухой закон» в США (англ. Prohibition — запрет) — общенациональный запрет на продажу, производство и транспортировку алкоголя, который действовал в США с 1920 года по 1933 год. «Сухое» движение возглавлялось сельскими протестантами из обеих ведущих политических партий, а также координировалось так называемой Антисалунной лигой.
The 18th Amendment, which banned the nationwide manufacturing and sale of alcohol went into effect on January 17, 1920. New York City Deputy Police Commissioner, John A Leach (right) watches agents pour liquor into the sewer following a raid during the height of Prohibition in 1921.
Запрет был введён Восемнадцатой поправкой к Конституции США, а в акте Волстеда были изложены правила для обеспечения соблюдения запрета и определены виды алкогольных напитков, которые были запрещены. Владение алкоголем в частной собственности и его потребление федеральным законом не ограничивалось. Запрет на алкоголь был отменён после ратификации Двадцать первой поправки, которая отменила Восемнадцатую поправку; она была принята 5 декабря 1933 года.


Prohibition agents destroy beer barrels at a dump in New York City in 1931. Shortly after the 18th Amendment was ratified, Congress passed the Volstead Act, which provided for the federal enforcement of Prohibition. Originally Prohibition agents worked in a unit designated under the Bureau of Internal Revenue, but this was transferred to the Justice Department in 1930.

Введение запрета на алкоголь и его последующее законодательное исполнение стали горячо обсуждаемым вопросом. Сторонники принятия закона представляли его как победу нравственности и здоровья, однако как только закон был принят, они не предприняли значительных усилий, чтобы помочь обеспечить его соблюдение.

Onlookers gather around the captured rum runner, Silver Spray, to watch prohibition agents pour five-gallon bottles of 'white lightning' moonshine into Virginia's Elizabeth River in 1921. The Prohibition Era, also known as 'the noble experiment', was an attempt to improve the moral and mental hygiene of America and also tackle crime, corruption and social problems, while reducing the tax burden created in prisons and halfway houses. In reality, the effort was a massive failure that led to a rise in organized crime.

Federal agents destroy a bar under the Volstead Act, which gave them legal authority to enforce Prohibition. According to the Washington Post, 1,500 agents were ready to raid on the first day of Prohibition - January 17, 1920.

Бутылки виски в хлеьных буханках

Bottles of Scotch whiskey smuggled in hollowed-out loaves of bread are pictured above in 1924. Statistics show that alcohol-related deaths from cirrhosis declined during Prohibition, as well as public inebriation arrests, but very few statistics measure the extensive and creative means bootleggers used to evade the law.

Rae Samuels holds the last bottle of beer that was distilled before Prohibition went into effect in Chicago. The bottle of Schlitz was insured for $25,000 (equivalent to $321,000 in today's money).

A woman poses with a sign on the back wheel of her car supporting the repeal of the 18th Amendment in 1927. Just as women played an important role in passing the 18th Amendment, they also played an important part in its repeal, primarily through the efforts of Pauline Sabine, a Morton Salt Company heiress who created the Women's Organization for National Prohibition. Sabine believed that the law made hypocrites out of bootlegging Americans who preached their respect for the rule of law.

Намного больше фото.


Tags: Выпивка, История фотографии, США
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